Hydrology Essay Examples
1. The speed and volume of a river varies from place to place along a river’s course because of many reasons. In the upper course, the volume of water is low as there are few tributaries. In comparison, the volume of water in the middle course is higher as there are more tributaries supplying water… View Article
Weather And Climate Change
1. Which water cycle processes are represented in this model and by what components? Answer = In this experiment evaporation happened when the warm water created steam and condensation was represented when the water vapor formed on the top of the lid and turned back to liquid water. Sublimation also occurred when the ice cube… View Article
1.1 Introduction As the world progresses on in this never ending chase for a time and wealth, it is undeniable that science has made astounding developments. Technology and computers are everywhere. Today, they are becoming the foundation of any development of society. The computer system is not a simple machine. It is like a very… View Article
Source of water
Source of water Life is possible on earth due to the presence of water. Nearly three-fourths of the earth’s surface is covered with water. Water is also found below the earth’s surface. It is present in air in the form of water vapour. About 70 per cent of the human body is water. The bodies… View Article
An essay on the drought of 1991-95 in Australia
It was one of the longest of the twentieth centuryand one of the most destructive in terms ofdamage to the physical environment. Largeareas of topsoil were lost and there was somedamage to vegetation and wildlife. As droughts occur frequently in Australia,most native plants and animals are usually wellequipped to deal with them. However, introducedcrops and… View Article
How Important is Water?As we all know, water is essential for mankind’s survival. However, people seem to believe that our water supply is endless since there is more water than land on this Earth. Water regenerates and is redistributed through evaporation, making it seem endlessly renewable. So why worry?Actually, only one percent of the world’s… View Article
Water is an integral part of land/soil productivity. Its misuse can cause both degradation and erosion of soils. Management of water resource is considered to necessary for well being of human life as well as crop yields. There is a gap between the seasonal availability of water and its equitable supply throughout the year. Accordingly… View Article
The primary repositories of fresh water
1. What are the primary repositories of fresh water on Earth? Which of these repositories is the largest? The primary repositories of fresh water on Earth is above ground or below ground. One-fourth is below ground and the rest is above ground, and the largest repositories are ice and glaciers. 2. What is the difference… View Article
Ocean Spray Case Study
OceanSpray Cranberries Inc is the world’s leading grower owned corporative that harvests and exports of cranberry and grape fruit along with its bye-products in the form of juice, sauce, etc throughout the globe. Founded in 1912, at South Hanson, Ocean Spray Cranberries has managed to keep its brand name as the world leader in food… View Article
The Important Roles That Groundwater and Water Conservation
Economic studies estimate the population of Texas to increase at an average of 1.7 percent annually. The growth supports the demand for retail trade, services, and government output (Rylander, 2002). However, increased water use is a result of the growth as well. West Texas’ primary sources of water are aquifers, such as the Ogallala Aquifer… View Article
Permeability of soil
Permeability is measured in term of water flow through the soil in a given time. The soil permeability is a very important factor to study the behavior of soil in its natural condition with respect to water flow. The size of pore space and interconnectivity of the spaces help determine permeability, so shape and arrangement… View Article
Future wars are likely to stem from a desire to control sufficient water resources. The concept of trinity revolves around water resources, water management and utilization. Water management remains pivotal to this all important source of national survival and development. The Government’s “Water Vision” is a step in the same direction. Pakistan has recently embarked… View Article
Engineering ewb research
1. Introduction The Engineers Without Borders Australia (EWB) Challenge is a program where first year University Students throughout Australia are required to select from a range of problems associated with the living conditions of a disadvantaged community within Nepal, more specifically the village of Sandikhola, a hilltop community in the Gorkha district. The students are… View Article
Statement of Purpose for MS in Civil Engineering
“Education is a tool that puts one on a fast track to acquiring knowledge and personality that sets one apart from the crowd. It is one bottom less hole; no matter how much one pours himselfinto it, he thirsts for more.” I can still vividly recall the memory of the day I saw the labs… View Article
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bjbjWW -. = = O ] ~ $ o '': g ~ Water Resource Engineering Dealing with the natural resources of our environment, both in management capacities for present needs and safety and in planning for the future available resources, is the responsibility of water resource engineers. Working in the fields of Hydrology and Hydraulics, water resource engineers help to guarantee the availability and quality of public water supplies and the timely handling of excess water, in any of its forms. Water resource engineering includes the analysis of water supply, treatment and storage, watershed management, which includes surface and ground water hydrology and hydrogeology, urban / rural rainfall and run-off analyses, and stormwater management and master drainage plans. The last function of water resource engineering is wastewater treatment and disposal, which includes sewage collection, treatment and disposal systems, sanitary sewer systems construction, inspection and rehabilitation, and sewage pumping stations collection, storage and treatment of urban run-off. Water resource engineering mainly falls in the fields of Hydrology and Hydraulics.
Hydrology is the study of the sources and natural flows of water, whether it be underground, watershed runoff, snowpack, etc. The practice in this field is the planning and management of the available resources, whatever their form. Hydraulics is the study of both confined and unconfined fluid flow phenomena, and the designing of engineered systems to utilize such fluid properties as head, pressure, and velocity. Hydrological research in its widest sense comprises the circulation of water in nature under the influence of climatic variability and of man's actions concerning the exploitation and control of the water resources. A quantitative model description of the circulation of water is central as a background for the analysis of groundwater contamination, environmental effects of groundwater recovery, soil erosion, flooding, drought, and the interaction of areal use and water resources. Hydrology can be divided into two main areas: groundwater hydrology and surface water hydrology.
Groundwater hydrology includes the flow and transport processes in saturated and unsaturated soil, including laboratory experiments and field investigations describing the exhaustive physical or chemical processes and the development of mathematical or numerical model systems. The focus of groundwater hydrology is especially upon the effect of heterogeneities in the subsurface (for example stone, clay or sand lenses and madrepores), dispersion and solution of oil contamination in soil, coupling between chemical processes and transport, and definition of model parameters by optimization and validation of models. A prevailing part of the research resources will also in the future be concentrated on groundwater research with the main theme being flow and transport modeling in heterogeneous aquifers including scale-dependent model description, geochemical modeling, inverse modeling, and modeling of multi-phase transport (oil contamination). New, important areas are transport of pesticides, estimation of model uncertainties, and optimization of remediation initiatives at point sources. On the other hand, surface water hydrology includes the planning, development, and management of the water resources. It focuses on the understanding and model description of the global, regional, and local interaction between atmosphere, soil, water, and vegetation, including the change of precipitation to evaporation, the creation and run-off of groundwater.
Research in water resources and hydraulic engineering includes problems in the hydrodynamic modeling of free surface flows, the dynamics of ice formation and transport in rivers and oceans, remote sensing of sea ice dynamics, the spreading of oil and other chemical spills, modeling deep water oil / gas jets and plumes, and mathematical modeling of oil spills on rivers and oceans. Hydraulic engineering also deals with fluid statics, fluid dynamics, pipe flow, open channel flow, the design of various hydraulic structures, measurements, and model studies. The following are water resources engineering case studies. Water Quality Modeling of Lake West Point West Point Reservoir, on the Chattahoochee River downstream of metro Atlanta, is subject to algal production and blooms due to excessive nutrient loadings that need to be evaluated and controlled.
The 2 D hydrodynamic and water quality model CE-QUAL-W 2 is being calibrated and applied to West Point Reservoir with the goal of assisting Georgia EPD in developing total Maximum Daily Loadings (TMDL's) of nutrients in order to meet water quality standards in the reservoir. The effect of using different temporal scales for model inputs is being investigated, and the impact of reduced phosphorus loading on reservoir water quality will be evaluated over a multi-year period. Use of Satellite Information in Modeling Runoff, Erosion, and Non-point Source Pollution for Large Watersheds This project focuses on assessing the value of using satellite sensed weather and land cover / land use for the management of large watersheds ( 1000 km 2). The project includes four major components: (1) estimation of rain using satellite images, (2) runoff modeling using distributed watershed models, (3) erosion modeling and sediment transport, and (4) modeling of non point source pollution loads. Case studies will be conducted for the Southeastern US and the Lake Victoria Basin.
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Research essay sample on Chemical Processes Water Resources